The other day I had another lesson with Shelbi. It's been overcast, windy and rainy for awhile and I haven't gotten lessons or had enough time working Ruby on my own. That day was windy but thankfully didn't rain during the whole lesson. I can tell she had energy and usually if I was on my own I'll admit I probably wouldn't risk taking her out or at least not to work on. She gets really frisky and I don't have enough knowledge on what to do when she does that, especially when we start the training. She starts getting in my space.
Halter: Halter knots on the nose goes on the beginning soft part on her nose. Higher up when the horse is tied. Too low it can stop her nostril breathing and panic her.
Yielding the hindquarters: Her anchor foot needs to stay still and planted. Drilling in while the other three feet move around. Nearest front foot.
Backing: Ruby knows how to back so I can take it a step further. She needs pay attention and give me two eyes. Yank on the rope when she's getting distracted. And hurry her feet because she needs to get out of her lazy steps back and respect me.
Too firm?: If someone thinks I'm too firm with the horse, think of it this way; I may work with her about 2 or 3 hours a day (most likely not every day) and the rest of the 24 hours the horse does whatever she wants.
Rhythm: I need good rhythm in almost every exercise. Not too slow to where the horse is thinking she got away with disobeying, and not too fast where I'm freaking the horse out and basically whipping her. It needs to be quick like I'm going to get it done but not too fast. I also need to work on my aiming and awkwardness of being a beginner.
Good habit: Backing Ruby all the way to the arena is a good habit to get into. And if she can lead without getting sticky feet after she's done really well with backing, then give her that as a reward.
Yielding the forequarters: First time doing this exercise. Hold the stick straight in front of the horse's neck, stand in the middle of the horse's neck, hands on either side of the stick. Handle end at the neck with the other end at the horse's face so I can rub the horse between the eye and ears at a stop. Since I'm new and not very good, Ruby will test me a lot. She'll try to get out of it and make out like I'm doing it wrong (even if I'm doing it right). Don't have the horse step in front. If a little tap/whack her on the nose, if a lot make her back up. Going too back, follow and force her to turn. If really bad make her back up and keep doing so, so she no longer wants to back.
Round penning/lunging: This time we tried Ruby more on making tighter turns. She didn't turn so well or gave me two eyes quick enough. What to do: If Ruby doesn't give me two eyes when I'm asked her to face me, keep walking until she does. If she doesn't and I hit the fence, I have two options; go along the fence to her and try to force her to turn. Or drive her forward and hard and then ask again. (option 2) If she does it again do the same thing and ask again till she faces me.
- Tap The Air
- Wiggle, Wave, Walk and Whack
- Steady Pressure
Last year in September I went to Nevada where Ruby was going through a 6 week fundamental training with one of Clinton Anderson's ambassadors, Sarah. I got a lesson with Sarah where she showed me what she did with Ruby those 6 weeks and mostly to help me with the training myself. It was only for one day and although it was amazing I needed more help. Mrs. Davis felt the same.
Sarah was going to come around April and teach a group of us at our EQ center. That was sadly put off because most of the other equestrian people in the group that we recruited were going to be too busy. And then I got surprised when I heard Shelbi was coming! Shelbi is another ambassador, I got to meet her January 22 and we all (Shelbi, Mrs. Davis, my mom and I) planned out private lessons. I'll get a private lesson which I think is better for me since she'll be only be focusing on me and I'll learn more that way than just watching. I get more than one or two lessons and I think Shelbi is really good at teaching. I need to save my money for each lesson and I want to get as many lessons as I can before she leaves because I don't know when I'll get professional help like that again.
Shelbi talks a lot and I like how she explains things to make it as easy as possible to understand. When I have a question I seem to make a simple question turn into a really confusing one so I like how especially Shelbi can answer my questions before I ask them out loud.
I've already had my first and second lesson on the 24th and 25th of January. One of my first notes I took in my head was about the training halter. I knew a little why the two knots on the noseband were there on Clinton's halter but never thought they had to be put in any place in particular. I always tied the halter on more tightly than loosely so the two knots on the noseband were higher on her face. This was okay if I was tying her to a post but Shelbi showed me that I have to have it lower down when i'm training her. She had me feel down her face on her bone and just were it got soft on her nose was where the two knots were supposed to be. They're pressure points, which means I can add more pressure on that so she doesn't want to pull against it. But I don't want the knots too low to where they're clogging her breathing and she freaks out, especially if she's winded.
During my second lesson I did yielding the hindquarters. Shelbi had me do it to show her how I'd usually do it alone with Ruby. When I did it in front of her I was so focused on getting her feet to cross that I forgot to have her 'anchor foot' stay still. Her 'anchor foot' is the forefoot nearest to me. 'Yielding the hindquarters' is getting her hindquarters to move away from me while we're turning in a circle. Her hind feet are supposed to cross while they go around and her forefeet turn as well but the one nearest to me. So basically all her feet move in a circle while her anchor foot stays in one spot and 'drills' around. Anyway, I kind of forgot to keep that anchor foot still so Shelbi showed me a trick to keep it that way. Every time she started to move that foot I'm to jerk on the rope to make it a tighter turn.
I also learned a new exercise. I did yielding the forequarters for the first time. Even though it's in the Fundamentals videos, I haven't actually tried it. I don't think I've watched it yet either. It's different from the hindquarters. I stand in front right in the middle of her neck and hold the stick horizontally parallel in front of her neck. When yielding the hindquarters I add pressure by tapping the air. For the forequarters I do it similarly but since I'm holding it with two hands horizontally I move it back and forth like tapping the air. Ruby moves her forefeet around and I think I'm not doing too badly for a first try. Shelbi said she will test me a lot. It's a higher chance Ruby will pretend not to know how to do it than it is me thinking I'm doing something wrong (what she wants me to think so I give up).
I've learned that If you own horses long enough, sooner or later you'll have a medical emergency. There are several things horses are known in their behavior that will end with a problem on the owner's hands. One is their instinctive flight-or-fight response. This makes it important to have the horse on his 'thinking side' of the brain. And I'm still learning to train Ruby and Sugar with this.
Another is a horse's dominance hierarchy, the need to establish the pecking order within a herd. This has already proven a problem between Ruby and Sugar. Between the two, Sugar is in command of the pecking order. And she seems to love bossing Ruby around. Ruby's recent injury when she was trapped in the shelter and Sugar kicked her because Ruby wouldn't come out. Sugar was the one blocking the entrance and making it impossible for Ruby to get out. But another problem with the pecking order horses have, is that they fight over the order.
Recognizing if there's something wrong like a cut or bleeding is an obvious problem to see. But if it's something in the inside like colic and other illness that may be harder to find.
Normal health for a horse is good to know and check up on. Here are some ways to check that I have been learning recently.
- Pulse rate: 30-42 beats per minute.
- Respiratory rate: 12-20 breathes per minute.
- Rectal temperature: 99.5-101.5F.
- Capillary refill: two seconds or less. (time it takes for the color in the gum to return after pressing and releasing the finger)
There are so many types of emergencies a horse can have. From heat stroke, snake bites, foaling difficulties to injured outwardly like cuts or even sharp objects stuck in a hoof, as well as colic and other illnesses.
Catching the horse and trying to keep him/her as calm as possible (as well as yourself) is the best action to take. The horse needs to be in a safe place to where he/she doesn't injury himself/herself more. It's also important to have another person hold the horse while the other checks or does anything to the injury. When I watched the vet give Ruby a shot in the rump, he had his assistant hold Ruby (staying one side) while he also was standing on the same side. He gave the shot on the other side of her rump so if she happened to strike out the person holding the horse could steer her and she would kick the other way and not hit him. Horses will kick out towards the hurting place, that's why he gave the shot on the opposite side so she would kick away from him.
West Nile Virus, WNV, is a disease mosquitoes transmit in horses. The virus is transmitted when a mosquito makes a meal of blood taken from infected bird and then feeds on a horse. Mosquito infects the bird with the virus, then the mosquito feeds on the infected bird, and then feeds on and infects the horse. If horses recover, they do so in about a week. Horses show signs of disease 3-15 days after being infected.
Horses are not the only ones who can get it; birds, llamas, goats, sheep, dogs, bears, various reptiles and humans as well as more species. The strains of WNV are capable of causing disease in certain domestic and exotic species of birds. Crows and blue jays especially, in which the infection was usually fatal.
WNV infection in mammals does not come in big amounts of the virus in the bloodstream, as it does in birds. There is a very small amount of virus in the blood of a infected horse. Mosquitoes are unable to transmit the virus from horse to horse or from horse to human. There are some clinical signs that a horse may show; stumbling, toe dragging, twitching muscles in the neck/shoulder area and more. Aged horses tend to get the disease worse. It's more common for horses (and humans) to get WNV in warmer weather.
This time I'll be writing about Laminitis. I remember in the past a horse named Peppy got Laminitis. I learned a little of what it was from Peppy's owner but I didn't quite remember all she said about it. That was years ago but now I know more about it.
Laminitis happens in the feet. Although it's in the feet, what causes it is more often elsewhere in a horse's body. Overfeeding is a common cause to Laminitis, but thankfully is easier to control.
Laminitis is a injury to what's called the sensitive and insensitive laminae (lamina, you can find it in the picture below) causing inflammation and could harm the important bond between these support structures of the foot. These Laminae parts secure the coffin bone (picture below) to the hoof wall.
Inflammation can permanently weaken the laminae, and if severe can separate the bone and hoof wall, and penetrate the sole.
- Overload of food (such as excess grain, fruit or snacks) or changes of diet.
- What's called "grass founder", is a type of Laminitis which a horse can get if sudden access to excessive amount of lush forage before the horse's system has time to adapt.
- High fever or illness
- Severe Colic
- Bedding that contains black walnut shavings
- Various foot deceases
Some of the signs horses may show as well:
- Lameness, especially when a horse is turning in circles
- Heat in the feet
- Reluctant or hesitant gait (what's called 'walking on eggshells')
Today (Feb 27) the horses got new shoes. This time on all their feet instead of just the forefeet.
Gail and I came early to work the horses before they got their feet done. We backed them all the way to the arena and did desensitizing, lunging for respect stage 1 and 2, yielding the hindquarters and forequarters.
Ruby was very testy that morning! She tried arguing with me right away, and I knew I would have to be more stern.
Here's what happens: I ask Ruby to back up. She stands there so I ask her again. Ruby took a few steps back (but very lazy ones). So I keep increasing the pressure until she speeds up. When she gets to the bend in the path, I start turning her. This is where she always gets fussy. She's already doing lazy steps and only speeds up when I increase the pressure.
In my last post about Ruby's injury I mentioned the vet had given me a couple of brochures on different illnesses and cares. I decided to write about one of them. The first one I picked was Colic.
Colic is a pain a horse has in his/her abdomen (belly). Colic is the number one killer of horses, although most cases are mild and can be treated medically simple.
I was most interested in recognizing when a horse has Colic. There's a long list of different behaviors but I'll just write a few instead of all of them.
- Kicking or biting at the belly
- Turning towards the flank
- Leaving food or being completely disinterested in food
- Repeatedly rolling with grunting sounds
- Rapid breathing and/or flared nostrils
These are just a few from the list, there are actually a lot of behaviors a horse can go though to show his/her discomfort.
There are a few easy ways to check on the horse as well. In my last post about Ruby, I talked about checking the gum in the horse's mouth. By pressing a finger down on the gum (releasing) and then seeing how long until it turns back to it's normal color again (normal: 1-2 seconds). Another thing to check is if the gum is moist, tacky, or dry. And just checking the color of the gum (white, pale pink, dark pink, red, or bluish-purple).
Check the respiratory rate (breaths per minute), measured by watching the rise and fall of the flank with each breath. Checking the pulse and heart rate (beats per minute), measured over the heart (just behind or above the left elbow) or over an artery (at the sides of the fetlock or on the underside of the lower jaw).
Here's how the fight started: Sugar was in the little shelter where both horses were eating from. Ruby was half in just eating along with Sugar until Sugar wanted to get out. Ruby was blocking her so she tried getting Ruby to move out of her way. Ruby didn't want to move because she still wanted to eat so she stayed. Sugar then took it a step further and got upset, felt trapped and started kicking. She smashed holes in the wall, turned and kicked Ruby several times around her left abdomen and flank.
Ruby didn't have a lot of open wounds but she was a bit sore and she limped too. The vet showed me one way to tell how bad Ruby's injury was is by walking her around and then trotting her. If she didn't limp and show sign of soreness when she walked it wasn't too bad of an injury. They had her trot and I could see she was sore and uncomfortable. She didn't show much soreness walking as she did when trotting. If it was really bad when she walked, then it would be much worse than if she trotted.
He also checked her teeth as well. He pressed down on her gum with his finger, turning it white, and then he let go and counted in seconds until it turned pink again (blood flow). I think it was about two seconds until it turned it's normal pink color again. If Ruby had lost a lot of blood or hadn't had water then it would take longer until it turned pink again.
He looked for sore spots by pressing down at different parts of her body to see how she reacted. Then he checked her heart beat. He shaved away hair around two spots where she had open wounds and cleaned them. Then he put some creamy stuff which I don't remember the name of. He injected in two places (don't remember the name of the stuff sadly), one in a vein on her neck and another in a muscle on the rump. He showed me the first shot he did on her neck. He showed me the blood that he sucked a bit of in the tube to make sure he got the vein. The second shot he wanted to make sure he didn't get any blood because he wanted to get in the muscle and not a vein. He showed me that he was standing on one side of Ruby and injected the needle on the other side so if Ruby kicked out she would kick out at the needle on that side and not hit him. She was calm and good and didn't move when he did it. Some horses would though it it was better to be on the safe side (literally).
After that he showed me some medication to leave for Mrs. Davis to give Ruby. He also gave me brochures of different anatomy, medical and care of horses so I have that to read now!
Took this picture of Ruby a day before: