Foal

A foal is a baby horse usually one year and younger. They can be also called colt or filly but that term is mostly used when there two to four years old. But when they are younger and are still nursing from their mother, they can be called suckling. (Picture below is of a newborn foal)

(Picture from wikipedia)

When they are weaned from their mother (no longer living off of milk) they are called a weanling.  They are weaned from their mother around the age of six months. And when they reach the age of one, they are called a yearling. 

A foal will be able to run along side its mother within a few hours of birth. A foal will nurse until at least four months before being weaned. But if they live in the wild they can nurse until they're a year old. 

They are trained both as young horses and as adult horses. When they are too young to be ridden or driven, they are halter-broken. Halter-breaking means that the foal learns to accept being led by humans with a halter and lead. Also they will learn to accept grooming, hoof trimming, and hair trimming (which might be used by electric clippers).  They also learn to be loaded into a horse trailer or how to wear a horse blanket. 

A very important thing is that horses in general have very good memories and their owners must make sure they don’t develop a bad habit that may seem cute when they are young but will turn out disrespectful and dangerous when they grow older. 

Horses are usually not mature until they're four or five years old. The most popular age to begin training ‘under the saddle’ is three years old when they are called colts or fillies. 

Appaloosa

The Appaloosa is an American breed and is known for their colorful, spotted coat pattern. There are even different kinds of color patterns, like the Appaloosa leopard or the snowflake. Or the Cap (Also called blanket). This is a white blanket like patch on the back and down toward the tail. Usually they have darker spots speckled all over the patch. 

(Picture from wikipedia)
Appaloosas were very often used in war in history. They were used for many other things, but today can be rode Western or English. Western competition include cutting, reining, roping and O-Mok-See (Which can be spelled Omoksee) such as barrel racing, pole bending show jumping and fox hunting. (Omoksee is a Native American phrase that means “games on horseback”)

Appaloosas aren’t only used in competitions, they are also very often used for trail riding. Appaloosas are also bred for horse racing for an active breed. For this they are generally used for middle distance racing at between 350 yards. Appaloosa holds the all-breed record for the 3,000 ft distance set in 1989.

Appaloosas are often used in western movies too. 

Equine center

At the EQ center near me live about 30 horses. The most popular breed is the quarter horse. So far as I know there are Palominos, Mustangs, Quarter horses, Paints, Pintos, ponies, and different kinds of draft horses. I'm not sure if there are any arabians because I have never seen one down there yet. Almost all the horses there are quarter horses or at least a mix of quarter horse in almost every horse. Some of the horses there share paddocks. Some of the horses I know names of are: Cole, Aladdin, Jessica, Sugar, Peppy, Lena, Raleigh and a few others. Here's a picture of the names and horses I can remember.

Horse Hair

Horse hair (mane and tail) can be used for many things like upholstery, brushes or bows of musical instruments. The tail hair of the horse is only used for the bows because it’s thicker and stronger than the mane. They only use the tail hair of a stallion for the bow and never a mare because a mare would pee on her tail sometimes, but a stallion doesn’t and their hair is finer that way and can be cut and made for bows with cleaner hair. 

Horse hair is also used for fabric that is woven into wefts (the term for the thread or yarn which is drawn through the warp yarns to create cloth) from tail hair and then woven with the warps of cotton or silk. Horse hair can also be braided, used for pottery, and making jewelry such as bracelets, necklaces, earrings and barrettes. It’s used for wall and fine art paintbrushes. Painting with horse hair paint brushes is very popular and very much used today. Horse hair is desirable for paint brushes because of its smooth lay and ability to hold a lot of paint so the painter doesn’t have to stop to get more. 
Horse hair is used for violin and other stringed instrument bows. Another use comes from potter, basket weaving, and even for fishing. They hair can sometimes decorate the pole but it’s the fishing line that’s useful. The hair is spun together and made into very long lines. 

One historic use was for gloves used for fishing in the medieval age leading up to the 17th century. Gloves woven from horse hair were made into gloves and also were water proof when it was woven tightly and had natural oil. 

In history they were used for all kinds of things. But not all of those are still used today. 



Horse Markings

Markings on a horse are usually white marks on a dark base colored horse. The markings never change from birth to old age. Even when they shed the markings don’t change. Some face markings can make the eyes blue or green, even though they are almost always dark brown.


Facial markings:

Star: A white marking shaped kind of like a diamond in between the eyes and could be above the eyes. 
Stripe: Also known as strip or race, goes down the middle of the forehead to the nose. 
Blaze: A wider strip down the middle of the face. 
Snip: A white markings on muzzle. 
White face: Or also known as the bald face, is a very wide blaze that could be just before the eyes or past it (Making the eyes bright green, white or blue).
This picture of a paint below has stripe marking on his face.

Leg Markings:
Stocking: White markings that comes from the bottom of the knee and down.
Sock: Or also known as mid cannon or boot, starts from the top of the fetlock and down. 
Pastern: Starts below the fetlock and down to the hoof (Doesn’t include hoof).
Crown: Or also called Coronet is a white marking band that usually doesn’t go higher than an inch.  

There are more kinds of markings, but these are the basics. Body markings come in all kinds of shapes and sizes from spots to patches. You can even see the skin color of black to pink through hairs of the markings.

Bashkir Curly

(Picture from Wikipedia)

Bashkir Curlies (or just known as the curly horse) are one of the gentlest and quietest kind if horse. They have a very unusual kind of hair.
(Picture from Wikipedia)
Their coat is curly and so is their mane and tail. Some of the Curly horses aren’t actually curly. These are called ’smooth coat curlies’. They remind me of a sheep because of their hair. Even their ears are curled in and very soft looking! It makes me want to touch it! They also come in all kinds of colors. They mostly come in chestnut but they can also be found in every color from standard bays, blacks, and greys, to appaloosa markings; from pinto patterns to colors such as buckskin, roan, grulla, and cremello.
 
In the summer they shed their hair and are almost bald. In winter they have a thick coat of the curly hair and sometimes makes the curls wavy, like this picture below. 
(Picture from Wikipedia)
They are used for beginner riders because they are gentle. But they can also be used for dressage and show jumping. Curlies are easier horses to train than most other horses. To me they remind me of a large sheep or huge teddy bear. 

Percheron

Percheron horses are a type of draft horse. They are used as all draft horses are used: farm work or pulling a carriage. They are big but don’t usually have feathers like the Shire or Clydesdale.

Sometimes they are also used as circus horses which they would be called Rosinbacks. When they’re in a circus they usually lope around the arena while an acrobatic does flips or dances on his back. Here is a video of Percheron horses and a acrobat doing flips on their backs —>

They have to be well trained for this or the rider could be very endangered if the horse got shy or a little frightened by something. They are big horses and could crush anybody by getting frighted.

A man named Mark Dunham loved Percheron horses. When he was small boy in 1848 he went with his father to a horse show. One of the horses caught his eye; it was a Percheron stallion. It was the biggest horse he had ever seen in his six years. And he grew up thinking about the strong draft horse. Finally he went to France (Where the Percheron stallion came from) and decided to bring a few of theses Percheron horses back home in America. He ended up getting seven Percheron horses and brought them back. After a few years went by he started buying hundreds of Percheron horses that filled his fields. The village of Wayne where he lived had Percheron horses everywhere.

Arabian

Arabian horses are very fast on their feet. Arabs (for short), could survive through heat without much food for a long time. Arabia in the ancient days had many Arabian horses. It’s mostly desert and you would find almost no life except a few camels, maybe a snake or two and a desert fox hunting for mice. What would surprise you is that there are herds of Arabian horses living in the desert. They are known for their curving tails that looks like a flag in the wind and there arched neck. The color of the Arabian didn’t matter. But they were measured by their height and made sure their skin was black so they could survive the heat and sun much better. This gray Arab horse has white white hair but his skin is black. 

(Picture from wikipedia)

The people who lived there used the Arab horses mainly for battle. It’s because their camels were fine for traveling on and carrying anything but their horses were much better and not so clumsy when it comes to fighting. They are fast and could do sharp turns while keeping their riders on their backs.
Or they would be sometimes raced on a long track.  

Some of theses Arab horses were sent to America for farm work. Today there are much more Arabian horses in US than anywhere else. Here’s a picture of a purebred Arabian stallion. I love his arched neck and flag like tail!
(Picture from wikipedia)

Clydesdale

Clydesdales are known for dressage (which means that they strive for high levels of precision and harmony between horse and rider) because they do very well by prancing and showing off. But they are mostly known for pulling carriages or carts in parades or other places like the fair. They are a very Scottish draft horse. They got their name from a river called River Clyde. Nobody really knows how the Clydesdale breed started. There are lots of stories that no one knows how it all actually started.But they do know that it was started from one horse who was pure black with a white blaze down his face and white feathers that reached his knees. His name was Blaze because of his white blaze. His white markings made the black look really black and beautiful. He was foaled in 1779 and always looked clean and shiny!

Most draft horses and of course Clydesdales have a type of braid on their mane that have little bobs on them. They are decorated this way on almost parade or horse show. Or even when they are just pulling cart or carriage. Their tail is either cut short or made into a small bun.

Most Clydesdales are bay or brown and it’s kind of rare to find a pure black Clydesdale. But they always have white feathers that wave when they trot. That is why they are mainly used as carriage horses. They are also used to plow on farms like the Shire, but are mainly used in parades, fairs and horse shows.

Here is a youtube video of a black Clydesdale prancing —> 

Shetland Pony

Some Shetland ponies lived on the Shetland islands north of Scotland. They were only used as work ponies, mainly they were called 'pit ponies'. Pit ponies were ponies who pulled cars of coal inside the mines. Some of the ponies never got to go out of the mines and worked their whole lives in them. Other than that, they were also used in the fields and carried back huge sacks of wheat or other kinds of crop the farmers grew there. Sometimes they would carry clams, fish or other kinds of sea food that the people gathered at the shores. The ponies were even used for transportation and had to carry heavy people on their backs. They worked quietly but were not very happy in their work, specially the pit ponies.

But the people there weren’t mean to their ponies. If there was a huge storm that would blow outside, often the owner would let his shetland pony inside for the night. And sometimes he gave the ponies a reward of oats. They had no other kind of horse that would be big enough or strong enough for the work. And even if they could get a bigger horse for the work the pit ponies were smaller and could work around easier in the dark passages. It was really the farm work and especially the riding that a bigger horse was needed. This work was sometimes too much for a shetland pony.

One day the mines were electrified and there was no longer a need for the pit ponies, as they would now use machines. They sent the ponies to America, where they were used as children’s ponies. They seemed to love it there very much. They liked the light children on their back instead of a heavy adult. They where taught to be gentle and made sure they weren’t overfed or mistreated. They loved to pull carts with children ready for a picnic. And sometimes had a apple core for a nice treat! There were two different types of shetland ponies, the slender American and the English draft. English draft shetland ponies came in a solid black, brown or bay color. As for the American, they came in all kinds of colors, patches and spots.